In order to safeguard the technical integrity of subsea pipelines, a combination of cathodic protection and coatings is used to protect the external steel surface from corrosion. Virtually all new pipelines are equipped with aluminum bracelet anodes, which have three basic configurations: welded, tapered and bolted.
Corrosion of internal and external surfaces of pipelines is a leading cause of failure of buried pipelines. Cathodic protection is a common electrochemical technique used to prevent corrosion on buried metallic pipelines. Deep anode, shallow anode and linear anode are three basic approaches to cathodically protect underground piping structures.